SCALES AND MEASURES

The DDS is a 17-item scale that captures four critical dimensions of distress: emotional burden, regimen distress, interpersonal distress and physician distress. First published in 2005, it has been used widely around the world as a clinical instrument for opening conversation with one’s patients as well as a critical outcome measures in numerous studies.

 

This copyrighted scale is available free of charge to non-profit institutions for use in clinical care and research. However, payment of a per use licensing fee is required for all for-profit companies and other for-profit institutions. To find out more about licensing procedures and fees in regards to for-profit organizations, please contact us at info@behavioraldiabetes.org.

 

Authors: Polonsky WH, Fisher L, Earles J, Dudl RJ, Lees J, Mullan J, Jackson

Title: Development of a brief diabetes distress screening instrument
Date:  2008
Authors:  Fisher L, Glasgow RE, Mullan JT, Skaff MM, Polonsky WH

Title: When is diabetes distress clinically  meaningful? Establishing cutpoints for the Diabetes Distress Scale
Date:  2012
Authors:  Fisher L, Hessler D, Polonsky W, Mullan J

PDF versions available below:
*translation certificate is available

The T1-DDS is a 28-item self-report scale that highlights seven critical dimensions of distress: powerlessness, management distress, hypoglycemia distress, negative social perceptions, eating distress, physician distress, and friends/family distress.

First published in 2015, it is quickly been adopted as a clinical instrument for opening conversations with one’s T1D patients as well as an important outcome measures in upcoming studies.

This copyrighted scale is available free of charge to non-profit institutions for use in clinical care and research.

However, payment of a per use licensing fee is required for all for-profit companies and other for-profit institutions. To find out more about licensing procedures and fees in regards to for-profit organizations, please contact us at info@behavioraldiabetes.org.

At this time, the T1-DDS is available in English and Portuguese (Brazil).

The key T1-DDS publication is:

Title:  Understanding the sources of diabetes distress in adults with type 1 diabetes

Date: 2015

Authors: Fisher L, Polonsky WH, Hessler DM. Masharani U, Blumer I, Peters AL, Strycker LA, Bowyer V

The Parent-DDS is a 20-item self-report scale that highlights four critical dimensions of parent-related distress: personal distress, teen management distress, parent/teen relationship distress and healthcare team distress.
First published in 2016, it is recommended for use as a clinical instrument for opening conversations with parents as well as a potentially important outcome measure in appropriate studies.
This copyrighted scale is available free of charge to non-profit institutions for use in clinical care and research.
However, payment of a per use licensing fee is required for all for-profit companies and other for-profit institutions. To find out more about licensing procedures and fees in regards to for-profit organizations, please contact us at info@behavioraldiabetes.org.
At this time, the Parent-DDS is only available in English.
The key Parent-DDS publication is:

Title: Understanding the areas and correlates of diabetes-related distress  in parents of teens with type 1 diabetes

Date: 2016

Authors: Hessler D, Fisher L, Polonsky W, Johnson N

The Partner-DDS is a 21-item self-report scale that highlights four critical dimensions of partner-related distress: “my partner’s diabetes management”, “how best to help”, “diabetes and me”, and hypoglycemia.
First published in 2016, it is recommended for use as a clinical instrument for opening conversations with spouses and partners as well as a potentially important outcome measure in appropriate studies.
This copyrighted scale is available free of charge to non-profit institutions for use in clinical care and research.
However, payment of a per use licensing fee is required for all for-profit companies and other for-profit institutions. To find out more about licensing procedures and fees in regards to for-profit organizations, please contact us at info@behavioraldiabetes.org.

At this time, the Partner-DDS is only available in English.

The key Partner-DDS publication is:

Title: Emotional distress in the partners of type 1 diabetes adults: Worries about hypoglycemia and other key concerns

Date:2016

Authors: Polonsky, WH., Fisher, L., Hessler D., Johnson N.

The GMSS is a 15-item self-report scale, with separate versions for subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The T1D version includes 4 subscales, which capture the following key dimensions: openness, emotional burden, behavioral burden and trust. The T2D version also includes 4 subscales: openness, emotional burden, behavioral burden and worthwhileness.

First published in 2015, it is already been selected as an important outcome measures in upcoming studies.

This copyrighted scale is available free of charge to non-profit institutions for use in clinical care and research.

However, payment of a per use licensing fee is required for all for-profit companies and other for-profit institutions. To find out more about licensing procedures and fees in regards to for-profit organizations, please contact us at info@behavioraldiabetes.org.

At this time, the T2D and T1D versions of the GMSS are available in Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Dutch and English. The T2D version is also available in German/Germany and German/Austria and Indonesian.

The key GMSS publication is:

Title: Development of a New Measure for Assessing Glucose Monitoring Device-Related Treatment Satisfaction and Quality of Life

Date: 2015

Authors: Polonsky WH, Fisher L, Hessler D, Edelman SV.

The IDSS is a self-report scale with two versions, a 14-item version for subjects with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and a 12-item version for subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The T1D version includes 3 subscales, which capture the following key dimensions: effectiveness, burdensomeness and inconvenience. The T2D version also includes 3 subscales: difficulty, usefulness and freeing.

First published in 2015, it is already been selected as an important outcome measures in upcoming studies.

This copyrighted scale is available free of charge to non-profit institutions for use in clinical care and research.

However, payment of a per use licensing fee is required for all for-profit companies and other for-profit institutions. To find out more about licensing procedures and fees in regards to for-profit organizations, please contact us at info@behavioraldiabetes.org.

At this time, the two IDSS versions are only available in English.

The key IDSS publication is:

Title: Development of a new measure for assessing insulin delivery device satisfaction in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Date:2015

Authors: Polonsky WH, Fisher L, Hessler D, Edelman SV.

The HABS is a 14-item self-report scale that highlights two critical dimensions of hypoglycemia-related concerns (anxiety and avoidance) and one positive dimension (confidence). It has only been validated for use in adults with type 2 diabetes.
First published in 2015, it is recommended for use as a clinical instrument for opening conversations with patients about their hypoglycemic concerns as well as a potentially important outcome measure in appropriate studies.
This copyrighted scale is available free of charge to everyone for use in clinical care and research.

At this time, the HABS available in English, Swedish, Bulgarian, Czech, Croatian, Romanian, Slovak, Serbian, Slovenian, Spanish (United States), German (Switzerland), Italian, Italian (Switzerland), French (France), French (Switzerland), Greek, Arabic (Israel) and Russian (Israel).

The key HABS publication is:

Title: Identifying the worries and concerns about hypoglycemia in adults with type 2 diabetes

Date: 2015

Authors: Polonsky WH, Fisher L, Hessler D, Edelman SV

The HCS is a 9-item self-report scale that examines the degree to which people with diabetes feel able, secure, and comfortable regarding their ability to stay safe from hypoglycemic-related problems. It has been validated for use in adults with type 1 diabetes and insulin-using type 2 diabetes.First published in 2017, it is already been selected as an important outcome measures in upcoming studies.

This copyrighted scale is available free of charge to non-profit institutions for use in clinical care and research.However, payment of a per use licensing fee is required for all for-profit companies and other for-profit institutions. To find out more about licensing procedures and fees in regards to for-profit organizations, please contact us at info@behavioraldiabetes.org.

The key HCS publication is:

Title: Investigating Hypoglycemic Confidence in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Date: 2017

Authors: Polonsky WH, Fisher L, Hessler D, Edelman SV

At this time, the HCS is only available in English.